用“还原—补缺—看成分”三步法选用关系词

用“还原—补缺—看成分”三步法选用关系词

用“还原—补缺—看成分”三步法选用关系词

定语从句是高中英语语法学习中的重点和难点,也是高考中的一个常考点。在语法填空和短文改错中都是经常考查的。在语法填空中要求考生填一个恰当的关系词,短文改错要求考生判断关系词是否用错了,即考查的焦点是关系词。笔者指导考生采用“还原——补缺——看成分”三步法选用关系词,效果较好。

 

还原:就是将先行词放回定语从句中。

补缺:(1)放回定语从句中之后,若该句为一个完整的句子,不需要再加其他成分(在从句中作主语或宾语)时,填who, which或that;(2)有的需要补充所有格或介词,结构和意思才完整,需要补上所有格(用作定语)时,用whose,需补充介词(用作状语)时,根据情况用when, where或why(先行词仅限reason)。

看成分:就是看先行词或先行词与补充的部分一起在句中作何种成分,作主语或宾语用who, which或that,作定语用whose,作状语用when, where或why。

 

[1]A plane is a machine          can fly.

还原: The machine can fly.

补缺:不用补,结构和意思已完整。

看成分:the machine在句中作主语,指物,用which或that。

[2]The boy          broke the window is called Tom.

还原:The boy broke the window .

补缺:还原后句子的结构和意思完整,不补缺。

看成分:The boy在句中作主语,指人,用who或that。 

[3]The fish          we bought this morning were not fresh.

还原:We bought the fish this morning.

补缺:还原后句子的结构和意思完整,不补缺。

看成分:The fish在句中作宾语,指物,用which或that或省略不用关系代词。 

结论:当代表先行词的关系词在从句中充当主语或宾语时,不需补缺,指人时用who, whom或that,指物时用which或that。另外,作宾语时可省略。

[4]The boy          parents are dead was brought up by his grandfather.

还原:The boy’s parents are dead .

补缺:还原后,“the boy parents (那个男孩父母)”不完整,需补上一个所有格,变成“the boy’s parents(那个男孩的父母)”才通顺。

看成分:the boy’s在句中作定语,用whose。

结论: 当还原后,句子意思不完整,需补上一个所有格时,该定语从句的引导词用whose。注意,whose后面紧跟一个名词, whose和它所修饰的名词在定语从句中作主语或宾语。

[5]I still remember the day          I came here.

还原:I came here on the day .

补缺:还原后句子不完整,需补上一个介词on。

看成分:on the day做状语,表时间,所以用When。

[6]This is the house          I lived last year.

还原:I lived in the house last year.

补缺:还原后句子不完整,需补上一个介词in。

看成分:in the house做状语,表地点,所以用where。

[7]There are many reasons           people like traveling.

还原:people like traveling for many reasons .

补缺:还原后句子不完整,需补上一个介词for。

看成分:for many reasons在句中做状语,表原因,所以用why。 

结论:当还原后,句子意思不完整,需补上一个介词时,该定语从句的引导词用when, where或why,分别表示时间、地点和原因。

 

 

请用以上方法做以下对比练习

1. She lived in the house _______ she used to live.

2. She lived in the house _________she used to live in.

3. She lived in the house _________she used to visit.

4. She lived in the house _________windows were broken.

5. This is the house _____the teacher want to buy.

6. This is the house _____a fire broke out last year.  

7. This is the shop _____sells children’s clothing.

8. This is the shop _____we bought a pen last year.  

9. The man _____is talking with my mother is my father.

10. The man _____ my mother is talking with is my father.

11. The man _____ hair is white is my father.

 

参考答案:

1. where;2.that, which或不填;3.that, which或不填;4.whose 5. that, which或不填; 6.where 7.that或which; 8. where 9. who或that; 10. who, whom, that或不填 ;11. whose

 

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